Online State of Charge Estimation for Lithium-Ion Batteries Using Gaussian Process Regression

This paper presents an application of Gaussian process regression (GPR) to estimate a state of charge (SoC) of Lithium-ion (Li-ion) batteries with different kernel functions. One of the practical advantages of using GPR is that uncertainties in the estimates can be quantified, which enables reliability assessment of the SoC estimate. The inputs of GPR are voltage, current and temperature measurements of the battery and the output is an estimate of SoC. First, training is performed in which optimal hyperparameters of a kernel function are determined to model data properties. Then, the battery SoC is estimated online based on the trained model. The kernel function is the key element in the GPR model since it encodes the prior assumptions about the properties of the function being modeled. Therefore, the impact of kernel function selection on the estimation performance is analyzed using both simulated data and experimental data collected from a LiMn2O4/hardcarbon battery with a nominal capacity of 4.93Ah operating under constant charge and discharge currents.