High-dimensional modulation for coherent optical communications systems

    •  Millar, D.S., Koike-Akino, T., Arik, S.O., Kojima, K., Parsons, K., Yoshida, T., Sugihara, T., "High-dimensional Modulation for Coherent Optical Communications Systems", Optics Express, DOI: 10.1364/​OE.22.008798, Vol. 22, No. 7, pp. 8798-8812, April 2014.
      BibTeX TR2014-017 PDF
      • @article{Millar2014apr,
      • author = {Millar, D.S. and Koike-Akino, T. and Arik, S.O. and Kojima, K. and Parsons, K. and Yoshida, T. and Sugihara, T.},
      • title = {High-dimensional Modulation for Coherent Optical Communications Systems},
      • journal = {Optics Express},
      • year = 2014,
      • volume = 22,
      • number = 7,
      • pages = {8798--8812},
      • month = apr,
      • publisher = {OSA},
      • doi = {10.1364/OE.22.008798},
      • isbn = {978-1-55752-937-4},
      • url = {}
      • }
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In this paper, we examine the performance of several modulation formats in more than four dimensions for coherent optical communications systems. We compare two high-dimensional modulation design methodologies based on spherical cutting of lattices and block coding of a base constellation of binary phase shift keying (BPSK) on each dimension. The performances of modulation formats generated with these methodologies is analyzed in the asymptotic signal-to-noise ratio regime and for an additive white Gaussian noise (AWGN) channel. We then study the application of both types of high-dimensional modulation formats to standard single-mode fiber (SSMF) transmission systems. For modulation with spectral efficiencies comparable to dual-polarization (DP-) BPSK, polarization-switched quaternary phase shift keying (PS-QPSK) and DP-QPSK, we demonstrate SNR gains of up to 3 dB, 0.9 dB and 1 dB respectively, at a BER of 10**3.