Battery Energy Management in Heterogeneous Wireless Machine-to-Machine Networks

The IETF standardized the IPv6 Routing Protocol for Low-Power and Lossy Networks (RPL) to meet routing requirements of the emerging applications. RPL is a distributed routing protocol and shows good scalability and fast network setup. However, RPL does not support sleep operation well. To provide efficient energy management and enhance RPL for sleep operation support, this paper presents battery energy management solutions for heterogeneous wireless machine-to-machine networks containing both battery powered nodes and mains powered nodes. We introduce a distributed sleep model for battery powered nodes to manage their own sleep schedules based on their internal parameters and observed network conditions. We propose two broadcast message delivery methods for battery operated networks that use distributed sleep control. Two battery node aware routing metrics are introduced to discover more battery energy efficient routes. We also present a battery energy efficient routing protocol called B-RPL to leverage distributed sleep model and introduced routing metrics. A battery energy efficient data packet transmission and forwarding method is provided to select the most battery energy efficient route among multiple active routes to transmit and forward data packets. Simulation results show that compared with standard RPL, the proposed B-RPL can extend network lifetime by two times and improve data packet delivery rate by 75%.