High-Dimensional Modulation for Mode-Division Multiplexing

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(a) Additive white Gaussian noise channel performances (Eb: Energy per bit, N0: Unilateral noise power spectral density) (b) Recovered constellations at the optimum launch power in (c) in the absence of amplified spontaneous emission noise, showing the effects of nonlinear distortion. Span loss budget vs launch power per spatial mode for optical signal-to-noise ratio corresponding to BER of (c) 10^-2 and (d) 10^-3.

We explore high-dimensional modulation for mode-division multiplexed optical fiber communication systems, focusing on optimized 24-D modulation formats in six-mode fiber transmission. Compared with conventional formats, our simulations demonstrate up to 8.7 dB span loss budget improvement for 6 b/s/Hz intra-channel spectral efficiency.