A Fast and Robust Load Flow Method for Distribution Systems with Distributed Generations

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This paper proposes a fast and robust load flow method for balanced power distribution systems with distributed generation sources. The method formulates generation sources. The method formulates the power flow equations in PQ decoupled form with polar coordinates. Second-order terms are included in the active power mismatch iteration, and resistances are fully modeled without any simplifications. The impacts of zero-impedance branches are explicitly modeled through reconfiguring of the adjacent branches with impedances. Typical distribution generation models and distribution load models are included. A hybrid direct and indirect solution technique is used to achieve efficiency and robustness of the algorithm. Active power correction is solved by means of a sparse LU decomposition algorithm with partial pivoting, and the reactive power correction is solved by means of restarted Generalized Minimal Residual algorithm with incomplete LU pre-conditioner. The numerical examples on a sample distribution system with widespread Photovoltaic installations are given to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method.